Action is the foundational key to all success. Quotesvalley.
China’s was the second pristine civilization to rise, and although the and separated China from the Fertile Crescent and India, there was cultural and technological diffusion. At times, China was ahead of Fertile Crescent civilizations in technological and cultural innovation. By eight kya, agriculture was firmly established in China. China has had less investigation of its prehistory, but it seems clear that China’s deforestation began with agriculture, just like everyplace else, and by 1000 BCE, China was largely deforested. The East Asian food complex is markedly different from the Fertile Crescent's, largely because East Asia relied on summer monsoons for its water, and winter rains provided water for the Fertile Crescent and westward, although civilizations were primarily based on seed and root crops. The rice paddy is the most sophisticated preindustrial agricultural system ever created. It by 3000 BCE, and rice paddies bred malaria to the extent that the paddy system in southern China was not successful until the local populace had partially adapted to malaria. Deforested lands alternately , and managing water in China became the foundation of imperial practice like nowhere else in history. Although , in practice they did nothing at all. Chinese emperors and the states they controlled, however, owed their legitimacy in their subjects’ eyes to how well they controlled flooding and drainage. The Yellow and Yangtze rivers carried more than 30 times the silt that the Nile did, and deforestation with the resulting flooding, siltation, and desertification have been major Chinese problems for thousands of years. Although it has been challenged, the idea that China reached early political unity due to few geographic barriers has merit. China has been politically unified almost continually for more than two millennia. The Han Chinese that dominate China are like white Americans, Canadians, or Australians, in that they invaded, conquered, and came to dominate lands initially settled by others.
Action is the foundational key to all success
Across all preindustrial civilizations, reacted in different ways to the energy surplus that domestication afforded, which usually depended on environmental variables, such as whether the arable land was bounded or whether shifting cultivation (as the soils were depleted) was feasible for relatively sedentary populations. The early states that arose where cultivation could be continual for a plot of land (through fertilizer and other methods) and were geographically bounded by barriers such as mountains, deserts, and bodies of water ( and ), were generally dominated by an elite in a steeply hierarchical society in what has been called the "exclusionary domination" model. The "corporate" model was more feasible where shifting cultivation could be practiced and geographical boundaries were minor (pre-state , the ancient culture in today's Nigeria) and less dominated by "great men" (monarchies) and more by groups that shared power (oligarchies, while constantly jockeying for it), and their control was more over labor than land. Most states arose where the arable land was both unbounded and permanent, or at least permanent. In anthropological circles, the corporate and exclusionary domination models of early civilizations often seemed to vie and interact, with one succeeding the other at times. However, whether it was monarchy or corporate oligarchy, the surplus was so small in agrarian civilizations that only a small elite and professional class could exist. Freedom was always a scarce commodity that primarily resided with the elite. While there was some variation in social organization across the world's agrarian cultures, the basics were identical for all of them, with elites and professionals riding atop the peasant class and extracting the agricultural surplus from them via a variety of carrots and sticks. Without the energy that agriculture provided, large sedentary populations were not possible, and without an agricultural surplus, civilization could not have formed. about the formation and trajectory of civilizations depended on those energy dynamics. Without those levels of energy generation, the game simply could not be played. In their most essential fundamentals, .
Although our species, (named if we consider that Neanderthals and an are subspecies of but I will use in this essay to denote today’s humans), is the only survivor of the past several million years of human-line evolution, many of our cousins and ancestors were recognizably human. When did language begin, especially spoken language? Language certainly predated the appearance of . All great apes readily learn sign language, and even when monkeys chatter, the , and there is plenty of evidence that great ape vocalizations can . The and their corvid cousins can be hard to believe; they can solve some problems better than great apes can, and birds do not have a neocortex, but seems to function like the neocortex does. Becoming that began to . If fossils are sufficiently preserved, important anatomical features can provide key evidence for human abilities and behaviors. Turkana Boy, for instance, had his inner ear, which is responsible for balance, preserved well enough so that it provided more evidence that he did not spend time in trees (it is larger in primates that regularly climb). Similarly, the , which succeeded , apparently enabled keener hearing than its predecessors were capable of, and may have reflected the beginnings of spoken language. There is strong evidence that . As with many other human traits, the potential for language seems to have existed with monkeys (), and it kept developing more sophistication over vast stretches of time, and structural and cognitive changes interacted as human language developed into today’s version.