Corruption in Pakistan Essay in English With Outline

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Now-a-days corruption can be seen everywhere

By the twentieth century mafiosi were extorting money from aristocrats and by the end of the same century they were . One might make a case that certain landholding aristocrats and higher clergy, including a few bishops, condoned the actions of the Mafia when it was expedient, but sweeping generalizations are unjustified. For example, the land reforms of 1948 dividing the large rural estates were opposed by the nobles who owned these properties, and certain mafiosi worked for these landholders as land managers. Until the twentieth century the Church in Italy rarely took a strong position on any "progressive" social issue, so (for example) divorce was legalized in the country only in 1974. If anything, we could say that the Mafia was sometimes facilitated by corrupt politicians who, like most Italians, were Catholic. It is true, however, that the Mafia flourished for a long time because the Church and the ruling class failed to recognize it as a threat to the very fabric of society.

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Former South Korean president Park Geun-hye on trial for corruption

Considering its profound influence on Sicilian life, no history of twentieth-century Sicily can be complete or accurate without mentioning the most famous Sicilian fraternity. Tragically, the Mafia (and extreme political corruption generally) is the single socio-economic factor that distinguishes Sicily's economic base from those of other European Mediterranean regions such as Spain and Portugal - though it appears that Greece also has some serious problems with public spending and corruption. It is one of the world's most enduring criminal organizations, and one of the most serious social problems confronting Sicily today. In recent times, it has murdered judges, priests and children - though with its increasing grip on the legal economy (public contracts, stores, restaurants) - this rarely happens nowadays. Its hierarchy and vernacular are a reflection of Sicilian society itself, complete with religious allusions: Its ruling council is the "Cupola," Michele Greco, was nicknamed "The Pope," a leader of "clans." But, like the , the Mafia is all but invisible. You probably won't see it if you visit Sicily. You probably won't see many of its effects, either, unless you look very closely. Those who presume that today's Sicilians do not think about the Mafia are sorely mistaken. Anti-Mafia organisations such as (of which is a member) have done much to encourage merchants and other business owners to stand up against the Mafia, but there is still much work to be done.

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In Italy, the cultural element creates fewer complexities. Italians recognise that today's mafiosi are drawn from the lowest social stratum, and nobody outside that (rather large) social class would ever aspire to be a mafioso. Collaborating with the Mafia, however, is another story. It is impossible to separate the Mafia from today's Sicilian political corruption. Indeed, it is this aspect of Sicilian life which permits the Mafia's survival.

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Corruption also creates a bad image of the country in other countries. Rich countries often give aid in the form of money and goods to the poor countries. If they so much as get a whiff that corruption is being done in the handling of the funds, they decide to withdraw their support, never to offer it again. Pakistan has suffered from this misfortune many times due to its corrupt leaders being discovered by aid organizations and governments abroad.

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Many people incorrectly presume the Mafia to be the of certain social problems. In fact, it is the - the result of centuries of bizarre practices such as (job preferments) which colour every facet of life in Sicily, making it a fertile breeding ground for all forms of corruption, dishonesty and criminality. (even in university positions) doesn't help matters, either. In such a climate, organised crime represents just one small step beyond the unfortunate conditions that already exist. In with promises of employment or other gifts.

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Against such a backdrop, one easily understands that the Mafia is not always the primary cause of organised crime in Sicily. More often, it is a simple symptom of the corruption that permeates almost every aspect of public and professional life in Sicily. New corruption is born every day: In recent years, certain local politicians who have spoken against the Mafia have covertly purchased large sections of Palermo's historical district through front companies (there were no public auctions), and given well-paying "consulting" jobs to their friends and relations.

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Sicilians call it , the Mafia-like mentality so prevalent in Sicilian life, especially among politicians and business people. This doesn't always mean that somebody is a mafioso per se, just that he behaves like one. is the Sicilian term for an attractive young woman who acts in this way. Clientelism, nepotism and the excessive use of "recommendations" to assign everything from public construction contracts to clerical jobs foster widespread corruption, and therefore organised crime. Bribery and kickbacks (the Italian word is for the envelope, busta, in which the money is paid) are normal in Sicily. Billions of dollars poured into the Sicilian economy by the World Bank, the United States, the European Commission and the central Italian government have ended up in the hands of corrupt politicians, consultants and others who, in many instances, were connected to the Mafia in some way. In many cases, the children or grandchildren of Mafiosi and Mafia-collaborators who stole money earmarked for Sicilian development under the Marshall Plan decades ago are now "respectable" citizens who one would not overtly associate with organised crime. In other words, the families have become legitimate. To many Sicilians, wealth is viewed as an end in itself; the methods employed to gain it are of little importance so long as misdeeds go unpunished. It's no secret that the criminal justice system does not function very well in Italy. And where there is no law, there is no sin.