History of Education in Canada - The Canadian …
I began my academic career as an ethnographer during my doctorate, which I undertook in Canada at McGill University. I sought to better understand how young people came to know about Indigenous human rights' issues and how non-Indigenous youth and teachers understood them as expressions of culture, knowledge and power. I was also interested in the part played by journalism, popular knowledge forms, and political culture in mediating these expressions. At this very early stage of my career, the project was about alliance building and developing collaborative and creative methodological approaches for assessing young people's knowledge of the inequalities experienced by Indigenous peoples and created through the legacy of colonial education practice. The concept of interest therefore rested with social and cultural inequality - particularly the colonial project and its legacies in the present. Concepts such as region, space, place, nation, history, memory, empire, and knowledge were also central to this project. Sociology has always been the discipline driving my work but it never lives on its own in the 'ethnographic imagination'.
Education in Canada: Current Issues (BP386e)
Kiefer, Nancy and Ruth Roach Pierson. “The War Effort and Women Students at the University of Toronto, 1939-45” in Youth, University, Canadian Society: Essays in the Social History of Higher Education, edited by Paul Axelrod and John G. Reid (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1989)
In western Canada, the influence of the social gospel and agrarian protest movements all played an important role in social reforms, the development of cooperatives, political parties such as the CCF and Social Credit, and the development of community within western Canada. Farmers constituted a petty bourgeois class, all having fairly similar social and economic situation in the first part of the twentieth century. These farmers and their families created communities and social movements that can be used to help build a better model of the petty bourgeois than exists in the Marxian framework. Writers such as Jim McCrorie and John Conway continue this tradition today, as does our department generally. More recently, some have begun to examine the manner in which farmers as a social class have become divided, with different strata among farmers. The division surrounding the selling of shares in the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool and the division of farmers over the question of the Canadian Wheat Board monopoly are examples of these divisions.The Saskatchewan Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life was established in 1952 and completed its final report in 1957. It was concerned with the "basic changes in rural life and the farm economy of Saskatchewan ... new rural social problems ... the ability of our young people to become established in the agricultural industry ... [and] the opportunities for extending the amenities of rural life" (Vol. 14, p. v). This Commission examined many aspects of agriculture and conducted some more sociological studies of education, migration and home and family life. Among the participants were Meyer Brownstone, Joe Phelps, William Harding, and Peter Woroby. After this Commission had completed its work, the Centre for Community Studies at the University of Saskatchewan carried on similar studies for a number of years.c. Dependency, Nationalism, Regionalism and Metropolis - Hinterland Analysis, NationalismA number of the distinctive features of Canadian development that we noted earlier have led to an emphasis on the differences and inequalities among Canadian regions, the domination and exploitation of some regions by others, regional identities, centre-margin approaches and metropolis-hinterland analysis. The writings of Innis, Creighton, Mackintosh, Fowke, Buckley, and Easterbrook provide an historical and political economic background that sociologists and political economists from the late 1960s through the 1990s have used to examine these regional differences and inequalities. The position of Canada as a whole has been analyzed by applying Marxist theories of imperialism, the dependency model of Andre Gunder Frank and Samir Amin, and the world systems approach of Immanuel Wallerstein. These approaches have also been influential in examining regional inequalities and exploitation of one region by another. Some have put primary emphasis on Canada-United States relations, with the suggestion that Canada was or is more or less a colony of the United States. Other writers have argued that Canada is part of the first world and itself exploits third world or poorer countries, especially in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. In Canada, the dependent nature of Canadian industrialization and domination by the United States may be emphasized. This could be a staple model with a class analysis. What these approaches mean is that they analyze development in a different way than the more conventional modernization theories. Underdevelopment and dependency are seen as the other side of development. Some of these Canadian approaches are as follows. The , chaired by economist Mel Watkins was set up by the Liberal government and made its report in 1968. Watkins is an economics professor at the University of Toronto, and carried on the tradition of Innis and Easterbrook, connecting the staple model with a form of Marxist class analysis. Watkins, along with Jim Laxer, became influential in the NDP and were leaders of the Waffle in Ontario, a group that argued that Canada was dominated by the United States, and that Canadian nationalism was progressive and could lead in the direction of socialism. The Watkins Commission showed the extent of foreign ownership and argued that this hurt Canada. The arguments from this Commission and the Committee for an Independent Canada (set up by Walter Gordon) were influential in setting up the Foreign Investment Review Agency, Petro Canada and various other attempts that would allow Canadians to exercise more control over their economy.Tom Naylor, in an influential article in the early 1970s, combined the Canadian historical approaches of Creighton and Innis with the Marxian categories of mercantile and industrial capital. Naylor, a professor of Economics at McGill University, argued that the colonial ruling and business class in Canada was essentially a mercantile class that made profits by marketing and transportation. According to Naylor, these Canadian capitalists were not interested in developing Canadian industry, with the result that Canadian industrial development has lagged and Canadian industry became dominated by United States capital. In contrast, historian Stanley Ryerson argued that Canada developed as an industrial nation in much the same way as other industrial nations elsewhere. He argued that Canada was an unequal union with English Canada dominating French Canada, and that the United States did have considerable influence within Canada. At the same time, Ryerson used a Marxist analysis to show that Canadian industrialization created an industrial capitalist class and a proletariat, and the conflicting relationships between these classes was the main force in Canadian history.In Western Canada there has been a long tradition of complaints about high costs of consumer goods and farm inputs, low prices for agricultural products, domination by financiers in Central Canada, limited processing of raw materials on the Prairies, extraction of surplus from the west with the benefits going to urban areas in Central Canada, loss of population, and lack of political representation and influence. These were often part of farmers movements (Grain Growers, Coops) or political movements (Social Credit, CCF, Reform Party). Some of these ideas became expressed sociologically through the metropolis-hinterland argument. Arthur K. Davis who came to Saskatchewan to work at the Centre for Community Studies in 1958, and later became a professor at the University of Calgary (1964-1968) and at the University of Alberta (1968-1981) attempted to popularize this approach. Davis brought with him the United States influences of Parsons, reactions against Parsons, Mills and the approach to Marxist thought. Davis argued that "for the historical review of Canadian and North American society ... we prefer a metropolis-hinterland perspective. Metropolis continuously dominates and exploits hinterland whether in regional, national, class, or ethnic terms" (Davis, p. 12). This perspective considers there to be conflict between metropolis and hinterland, and "a tendency on the part of hinterland groups and interests to fight back eventually against their metropolitan exploiters in order to gain a larger place in the regional or national and international sun. ... The metropolitan-hinterland perspective is obviously a variation of the dialectical approach stemming from the Marxist tradition of social thought" (Davis, p. 13). Writing in the 1960s, Davis favoured "Quebec's move for independence, a step which he called ‘the most promising recent development in Canadian society’ because it might contribute to a Canadian-hinterland vs. American metropolis showdown" (Nock, Lessons from Davis, pp. 403-404). Davis thus integrates some of the models of Innis and the historical and political economic approach with a type of Marxism to produce a model of dependence and resistance to that dependence. Other studies and approaches that might be included in this section.Marchak and studies of B. C.Quebec and Quebecois nationalism. Stanley Ryerson.Canada and the US. S. M. Lipset, Gad Horowitz, C. B. McPherson, George Grant.Maritime writers. Institute for Social and Economic Research at Memorial University in Newfoundland. Regional underdevelopment in Maritimes.Studies of the North.d. Immigration, Settlement, Ethnicity, MulticulturalismFrontiers of settlement. Dawson.Immigration. Mabel TimlinPopulation studies. Keyfitz. Ethnicity and multiculturalism. Aboriginal studies.e. Urban Studies.