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Ibsen's apprenticeship was long, lasting about 15 years, and includedtheater work he later would claim to be as difficult as "having anabortion every day." There was a strong pressure to produce hangingover him; one that led to fumbling attempts in many directions. He experienceda few minor artistic victories - and numerous defeats. Very few believedthat he had the necessary gift to become more than a minor theatrical writerwith a modicum of talent.

"Ibsen's drama is the Rome of modern drama: all roads lead toit - and from it."

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Understandably, some students of Ibsen have fallen into the temptationof drawing a parallel between life and art, and see this work as a mercilessself-denunciation. Once again, isby no means auto-biographical. Rubek's relationship with the writer hasto be sought on a deeper level - in the conflicts that Ibsen, toward theend of his life, saw as a general and essential human problem.

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

"Norway was a kingdom, now it will be a nation (... ) all shallbe as one hereafter, and all shall know in themselves that they are one.!"

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(2010-07-27) - ISBN-13: 978-613-1-05612-3

Simultaneously, this drama, like , is apainful clash with the melancholic, killjoy aspects of the Christian bourgeoistradition which subdues the human spirit. Both these works contain, forall their despair, a warm defense of happiness and the joy of life - pittedagainst the bourgeois society's emphasis on duty, law, and order.

(2012-01-07) - ISBN-13: 978-613-9-71231-1

Eventually, as Ibsen grew older, he had trouble accepting certainextreme forms of liberalism which overemphasized the individual's sovereignright to self-realization and to some extent radically departed from pastnorms and values. In , he points out thedangers of radicalism built solely on individual moral norms. It is obvioushere that Ibsen is concerned with European culture's basis in a Christianinspired moral tradition. One has to build on this, he indicates, eventhough one has given up the Christian faith. This is certainly the conclusionthat Rebekka West reaches.

(2010-09-19) - ISBN-13: 978-613-3-05581-0

In the history of drama, early in the 1850s Ibsen carried on thetraditions of two highly dissimilar writers, the Frenchman EugéneScribe (1791-1861) and the German Friedrich Hebbel (1813-63). For 11 yearsthe young Ibsen was occupied with day to day practical stagework, and itfollows that he had to keep himself well informed about the latest contemporaryEuro-heatrical art. He worked with rehearsals of new plays and was committedto writing for the theater.

The Concept of the Individual Through Technological Images

This points to the basis of Ibsen's international success. He tookdeep schisms and acute problems that afflicted the bourgeois family andplaced them on the stage. On the surface, the middle-class homes gave animpression of success - and appeared to reflect a picture of a healthyand stable society. But Ibsen dramatizes the hidden conflicts in this societyby opening the doors to the private, and secret rooms of the bourgeoishomes. He shows what can be hiding behind the beautiful façades:moral duplicity, confinement, betrayal, and fraud not to mention a constantinsecurity. These were the aspects of the middle-class life one was notsupposed to mention in public, as Pastor Manders wished Mrs. Alving tokeep secret her reading and everything else that threatened the atmosphereat Rosenvold in "Ghosts". In the same manner, the social leadersin "Rosmersholm" put pressure on Rosmer to keep him from tellingthat he, the priest, had given up the Christian faith.

European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages

In spite of Nora's uncertain future prospects, she has served ina number of countries as a symbol for women fighting for liberation andequality. In this connection, she is the most "international"of lbsen's characters. Yet this is a rather singular success. The middle-classpublic has enthusiastically applauded a woman who leaves her children andhusband, completely breaking off with the most important institution inthe bourgeois society - the family!