Essay on “Computers Can Translate All Kinds of …

The personal computer technology has grown greatly improving the personal computer industry.

Essay On The Role Of Computers in Everyday Life.

n instructive example of this confusing conceptual gap can be found in the heated debate surrounding one of the most influential articles in the history of computer science. In a 1980 paper, the philosopher John R. Searle sketched out a thought experiment in which a man who speaks only English sits in a room with a batch of Chinese symbols and a set of instructions written in English. Interrogators outside of the room slip questions written in Chinese in through the door; the man inside understands no Chinese, but based solely on the English instructions and the shape of the Chinese characters, he constructs answers, which he then slips back out through the door. Even though the interrogators might believe that they are interacting with a person who understands Chinese, we know that the man inside the room does not understand Chinese. Searle’s scenario is, of course, designed to be analogous to how an operating AI program works, and is thus supposedly a disproof of the claim that a computer operating a similar program could be said to “understand” Chinese or any other language — or indeed, anything at all. Some defenders of strong AI have replied that understanding is taking place, if not by the man, then by the room as a whole.

My roommate turns on her computer and it says the same thing, as with most people on my floor.

Computers: Essay on the Importance of Computer in …

To do so, you must be able to represent the problem in terms that the computer can understand — but the computer only knows what numbers and memory slots are, not titles or shelves. The solution is to recognize that there is a correspondence between the objects that the computer understands and the relevant properties of the objects involved in the algorithm: for example, numbers and titles both have a definite order. You can use the concepts that the computer understands to symbolize the concepts of your problem: assign each letter to a number so that they will sort in the same way (1 for A, 26 for Z), and write a title as a list of letters represented by numbers; the shelf is in turn represented by a list of titles. You can then reduce the steps of your sorting job into steps at the level of simplicity of the computer’s basic operations. If you do this correctly, the computer can execute your algorithm by performing a series of arithmetical operations. (Of course, getting the computer to physically move your boss’s books is another matter, but it can give you a list ordered the way your boss wanted.)

More importantly, a description at a lower level may be practically impossible to translate back into an original higher-level description. Returning again to our sorting example, suppose now that a friend hires you to do some task that his boss asked him to perform. All he gives you is a list of instructions, each of which is about as simple as “decide if these two numbers are equal.” When you follow these instructions, you will perform the task exactly as your friend has specified, but you may have no idea what task you are performing beyond comparing lots of numbers. Even if you are able to figure out that, say, you are also doing some kind of sort, it could be impossible to know whether you are sorting books rather than addresses or names. The steps you execute still clearly embody the higher-level concepts designed by your friend and intended by his boss, but simply ­knowing those steps may not be sufficient to allow you to deduce those original concepts. In the computer, then, a low-level description of a program does provide a causally closed description of its behavior, but it obscures the higher-level concepts originally used to create the program. One may very likely, then, be unable to deduce the intended purpose and design of a program, or its internal structure, simply from its lower-level behavior.

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Those who employ this analogy tend to do so with casual presumption. They rarely justify it by reference to the actual workings of computers, and they misuse and abuse terms that have clear and established definitions in computer science — established not merely because they are well understood, but because they in fact are products of human engineering. An examination of what this usage means and whether it is correct reveals a great deal about the history and present state of artificial intelligence research. And it highlights the aspirations of some of the luminaries of AI — researchers, writers, and advocates for whom the metaphor of mind-as-machine is dogma rather than discipline.

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We are becoming overwhelmingly dependent on computer technology which is causing a negative impact on the human society because of the following reasons, lack of social confidence, privacy threat and health problems....

Essay on Constitutional Development in India;

This essay discusses how this comparison allows us to turn ways in which humans and computers are similar into the development of useful computational models.

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uch artificial intelligence research has been based on the assumption that the mind has layers comparable to those of the computer. Under this assumption, the physical world, including the mind, is not merely understandable through sciences at increasing levels of complexity — physics, chemistry, biology, neurology, and psychology — but is actually organized into these levels. Moreover, much work in AI has assumed that the layers of the mind and brain are separable from each other in the same manner that the computer is organized into many layers of abstraction, so that each layer can be understood on its own terms without recourse to the principles of lower levels. These assumptions underlie the notion that the mind is a “pattern” and the brain is its “substrate.”

ACT Writing and New SAT Essay Requirements – …

Some believe that by using the latest technology of multicore processors which are able to perform exponentially large calculations within a blink of eye, these computers of 21st century possess unparalleled processing power and are thus difficult to be outperformed in the highly thoughtful game of chess by mere humans.