Keywords: trance, drumming, Umbanda, music, music therapy

In the nineteenth century, there was a desire to use the sounds of music to minimize pain.

Music Therapy all together.....

Works Cited

Aiden, Kenneth. The Voice of the Forest: A Conception of Music for Music Therapy.

Hart, Mickey. "Shaman's Drum.'" Chapters 10 & 12. From Drumming at the Edge of Magic. Pp. 202-210.

Moreno, Joseph. Candomble: Afro- Brazilian Ritual as Therapy.

There is extensive research completed on this subject.

Rhythm plays an important role in language; therefore, employing singing, spoken music and pitched percussive Orff instruments enhances speech and language awareness in Children with ASD....

During W.W.I., music therapy in the United States began to develop when music was used in the Veterans Administration Hospitals as an intervention to address traumatic war injuries....


Marcus, D. (1994). Afterword. Music Therapy, 12(2), 88- 93.

This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations between the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

Munro, S. (1985). Epilogue. Music Therapy, 5(1), 74-76.

Music plays a central role in Umbanda's ritual of possession or incorporation. Although the most traditional term is possession, I prefer using incorporation when referring to Umbanda, because during the rites the participants aren't totally taken; that is, they are not entirely owned by the entities they supposedly give way to. Instead, consciousness is preserved. Participants preserve the notion of their own everyday identity, even though they have no control over their bodys’ actions. This has certainly been my own experience of being incorporated by Umbanda entities, and my peers and research Zangari (2003) have confirmed it. Zangari found “to give yourself doesn't mean being unconscious. (However) there are 'unconscious mediums', who have no memory of the incorporation happening. But those are a minority. The others are the 'conscious mediums'" (p. 107).

Music Therapy is a growing trend in helping heal autistic children.

Stige (2002) suggests "by seeing their own practices in the light of other practices [music therapists] may be able to evaluate assumptions and procedures that have been taken for granted" (p. 195). Umbanda is not a therapy, however, it is a religion. And being so, it doesn't fit Stige's term, "popular music therapy" (p. 194), because its purpose is not therapeutic. However, because music is situated at the center of the ritual, the study of music in Umbanda seems especially interesting to consider alongside music therapy’s "assumptions and procedures."

Music is a learning, a therapy, and teaching tool.

Candomble is a religious cult brought by enslaved Africans to Brazil, in which the followers are also possessed by supernatural entities venerated by them. Some aspects of Umbanda derive directly from Candomble, such as certain worshipped entities, types of offerings, ritual forms, and particularly, the music. There are therefore great similarities between the Umbanda and Candomble when it comes to the kind of music and its role within the ritual. Joseph Moreno (1988, 1995, 2004) discusses aspects of the relationship between music therapy and Candomble. He notes that “the prominent role of music in Candomble makes it of particular interest from the perspective of music as therapy” (1995, p. 219). Further, he argues that:

Music is therapy because of its positive changes in human behavior.

Barcellos (2001; 2002) also comments on the presence of Candomble's music in music therapy. Although she does it less peremptorily than Moreno (1995), she still emphasizes the importance of music to patients, who often: