Essays on the Scientific Study of Politics - Forgotten …
In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, authors from newlyemerging scientific disciplines, such as anthropology, sociology, andpsychology, examined the purported naturalistic roots of religiousbelief. They did so with a broad brush, trying to explain what unifiesdiverse religious beliefs across cultures, rather than accounting forcultural variations. In anthropology, the idea that all culturesevolve and progress along the same lines (cultural evolutionism) waswidespread. Cultures with differing religious views were explained asbeing in an early stage of development. For example, Tylor (1871)regarded animism, the belief that spirits animate the world, as theearliest form of religious belief. Comte (1841) proposed that allsocieties, in their attempts to make sense of the world, go throughthe same stages of development: the theological (religious) stage isthe earliest phase, where religious explanations predominate, followedby the metaphysical stage (a non-intervening God), and culminating inthe positive or scientific stage, marked by scientific explanationsand empirical observations.
The Study Of Politics As A Science Politics Essay
Natural philosophers, such as Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, RobertHooke, and Robert Boyle, sometimes appealed to supernatural agents intheir natural philosophy (which we now call “science”).Still, overall there was a tendency to favor naturalistic explanationsin natural philosophy. This preference for naturalistic causes mayhave been encouraged by past successes of naturalistic explanations,leading authors such as Paul Draper (2005) to argue that the successof methodological naturalism could be evidence for ontologicalnaturalism. Explicit methodological naturalism arose in thenineteenth century with the X-club, a lobby group for theprofessionalization of science founded in 1864 by Thomas Huxley andfriends, which aimed to promote a science that would be free fromreligious dogmas. The X-club may have been in part motivated by thedesire to remove competition by amateur-clergymen scientists in thefield of science, and thus to open up the field to full-timeprofessionals (Garwood 2008).
Leftwich states in his essay entitled "Politics: people,
resources and power" from his book "What is Politics?"
"...politics compromises all the activities of co-operation and
conflict, within and between societies, whereby the human species goes
about organising the use, production and distribution of human, natural
and other resources in the production and reproduction of its biological
and social life." (Leftwich, 1984, p.64-65)
Politics therefore may be defined a means to resolving this conflict
through various means, which will be tackled later in this essay.
Essays on the Scientific Study of Politics - Internet Archive
Horton quotes from "Rationalism in
Politics and other Essays"(1962) by Michael Oakenshott;
"Politics I take to be the activity of attending to the general
arrangements of a set of people whom chance or choice have brought
Essay about Can the Study of Politics Be Scientific or …
Part III discusses the esteem for this faculty expounded in Strauss' polemical epilogue to Essays on the Scientific Study of Politics. Foregrounding his debt to Aristotle, Behnegar elucidates Strauss' vindication of the everyday language first born of the intrinsic complexity of political life and his aligned contention that politics is 'sovereign over other practical sciences' (154). Owing to its understanding political things in political terms, the commonsensical vocabulary of old political science makes possible the refinement of moral judgments. Consequently, new political science's denigration of its purported ambiguity and ensuing substitution of evaluative expressions by scientific terminology impedes this facility; the factual discourse of the disinterested observer subjugates the voice and practical acumen of the committed citizen. Classical political thought, moreover, understands that the political regime is the whole that governs the parts and that the ultimate...
Frontiers in the Scientific Study of ..
Relativism above all galvanized Strauss' belief that returning to classical political philosophy is 'a necessary step in achieving clarity about preferences of any kind' (3). Thus Part I assesses the viability of contemporary alternatives to his conception of a genuine science of politics. The conclusion is announced at the onset: the history of positivism is largely one of 'social science's dissatisfaction with its own achievements' (9). In this vein, the unraveling of Comte's progressive expectations with the advent of the First World War and the ascent of mass democracy, and their ultimate disappointment at the hands of behaviourist and rational choice paradigms, is chronicled. And this lamentable process, it is argued, culminates in political science's steadfast refutation of universally valid moral laws. According to Strauss, however, natural right is a perennial human need; it alone enables judgments about injustice. Hence the rejection of natural law occasions nihilism. But he warns there is no guarantee this repudiation is unwarranted and, therefore, that we must not 'embrace natural right in a spirit of fanatical obscurantism' (59). Rather, deliverance from our present-day sense of despair requires an acute appreciation of the fact that 'only the full awareness of our own perplexity can lead to the realization of the possibilities that remain open to us' (61). [End Page 379]
Essays on the scientific study of politics - IntelExcel
The ambiguous character of race in scientific research resides in the fact that race is a social category but with biological consequences. There is no such thing as a 'natural' human population. Migration; intermarriage; war and conquest; forced assimilation; voluntary embrace of new or multiple identities whether religious, cultural, national, ethnic or racial; any number of social, economic, religious, and other barriers to interaction (and hence to reproduction); social rules for defining populations such as the 'one drop rule' in America - these and many social other factors affect the character of a group and transform its genetic profile.