History of the English Language Essay will be available on
Receives priority in schooling
English as an international language
Does not compel the speaker to have a perfect command of the culture it expresses
Communication of the ideas and culture
Functions as a bridge between speakers with different linguistic backgrounds
English plays the role of lingua franca
Kinds of English
English as a Native Language (ENL)
English as a Second Language (ESL)
English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
The relative numbers of native English speakers in the major English-speaking countries of the world
The Industrial Revolution - the British economic predominance in the 19th century paved the way for colonialism of large geographical reach
Displacement of French from the sphere of diplomacy
After WW, there was a rise in economic influence from the United States
The Internet is widely regarded as a tool for strengthening trade and investment.
English is the working language of the Asian trade group ASEAN.
Virtually every language on Earth has contributed to the development of English, from Finnish () and Japanese () to the vast contributions of French and Latin.
The militaries of World War II’s warring nations all committed heinous atrocities, but . Everybody was a cheerleader, but fabricating atrocity stories about the other side was typical. One reason why few believed early stories about the Jewish Holocaust as it was happening was that , so many thought that it was just more . Hitler realized that the British won the propaganda war in World War I and he was determined that Germany would win the next war of lies. studied the work of Bernays and other mind-control specialists to create the Third Reich’s message to its masses. Nazi and communist propaganda was relatively clumsy, in ways far behind the English and American art forms. Since the 1980s, I have seen Soviet and Chinese immigrants to the USA asked what the difference was between communist indoctrination systems and the Western media and educational institutions, and the answer was approximately: “In my homeland, everybody knew that they were being lied to, but Americans usually that they are fed.”
At present, English is a true lingua franca and a global language.
But in medieval Europe, the , beginning with Germanic lords as Rome was falling. Not only did the watermill spread throughout Europe, but new mills such as the and appeared. Today’s France is where most medieval mill innovations appeared, but watermills became universal on the streams and rivers of Europe. In 800, only a few watermills existed in Western Europe, but by 1000 there were hundreds. The of 1086 recorded nearly six thousand watermills in England alone, and the true number was some thousands more. The had 10 thousand watermills at that time, and their number doubled in the next two centuries, as did England’s. Each mill produced at least two-to-three horsepower, which was the equivalent labor of about 50 men. In 11th-century France, its mills produced the labor of a quarter of its population. Medieval European watermills produced the work of millions of people and reduced the need for slaves. It was a prelude to the Industrial Revolution. When Columbus sailed in 1492, watermills performed the work of at least 10 million people in Europe, which had a population of about 75 million. When watermill sites became filled, Europeans began using windmills, which first appeared in France in 1080, although the first . The social organization of medieval Europe was ; peasants labored for landowners in return for a portion of the harvest. The watermill became the center of a struggle between feudal and Church authorities and the peasantry; the windmill was established partly to circumvent lordly claims on waters that passed over their lands, as nobody yet owned the air.
English language - Wikipedia for Schools
In the Eastern Woodlands of North America, natives began domesticating plants before 2500 BCE. It may well be an independent domestication event. Those horticulturalists largely became matrilineal societies. The was succeeded by the , in which maize seems to have made its way from Mesoamerica. Around 500 CE, the , the bow and arrow supplanted the spear and atlatl, and the "" - maize, beans, and squash - began dominating food production. When the began around 800 CE, intensive maize production began and spread, which led to rapid population growth and the rise of , which led to the only pre-Columbian North American city, at , which collapsed, almost certainly from environmental over-taxation and a cooling climate, before 1400 CE. The mound-building Mississippian culture had a familiar trajectory, as intensive agriculture led to an agricultural surplus. Men, who controlled the surplus and rose to dominance, commandeered the local religion into granting them divine status or sanction and erected monumental architecture to themselves and their divine yet invisible patrons. As in , they made their structures from earth instead of stone. Soil fertilization for maize-growing was not practiced, which rapidly depleted the soils (there were no domestic animals to provide manure, and the Indians did not adopt the night soil practices of East Asia), and the cooling of the , along with declining soil fertility, spelled the decline of Mississippian culture before Europe's first invasions of the Columbian era. The and its aftermath was a catastrophe for Mississippian peoples. Later European invaders . By the 1600s, when England began invading the Eastern Woodlands, the Mississippian culture had vanished, and by the late 1700s, the Southeastern Indians not only retained no memory of who made those mounds that they lived near, they also had no memory of the social order that built them. The Cherokee seemed to retain some vestigial memory of Mississippian culture, as they had stories of despotic Indians that the Cherokee annihilated, but the mounds had become the source of a myth that spirit warriors lived in the mounds and could issue forth and fight Cherokee enemies.
THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND THE GLOBALIZATION | …
Economics is the study of humanity’s material well-being, but humans have rarely thought past their immediate economic self-interest, even when the long-term prospects were obviously suicidal, such as today’s global energy paradigm. Because environmental issues affect humanity’s material well-being, they are economic in nature. As can be seen so far in this essay, there was little awareness or seeming caring in early civilizations whether they were destroying the very foundations of their civilizations. Even if they did not care how much other life forms suffered, they did not seem to realize that it also meant that those oppressed and exterminated organisms and wrecked environments would not provide much benefit to humanity in the future, especially energy, whether it was food or wood.