The Effects Of Social Media On Society | Term Paper …
Jansen, G. Effects of noise on physiological state. In W.D. Ward & J. Fricke (ed.), Washington DC: American Speech Hearing Association, ASHA Report No. 4, pp. 89-98 (1969).
Short essay on the influence of Media on our Society
So far, noise abatement is exercised by reducing the sound pressure level of a community noise. It is based on major relationships found between external noise and its adverse effects on the human population. For the adverse effect to be coupled to the noise and not to another environmental agent, a person has to be able to hear it. Langdon (1987) concludes that although, in some socio-physical surveys noise exposure can account for over 85 % of the variance in expressed annoyance of a community, the prediction of individual responses remains poor. In a review of the literature, Job (1988a) concludes that only a small percentage (typically less than 20%) of the variation in individual reaction is accounted for by noise exposure.
Cross-sectionally designed studies, which cannot provide information on the temporal relationship between noise exposure and onset of disease, and, thus, not on causality, continue to dominate the literature. Preliminary results from prospective studies (Elwood, Ising, & Babisch, 1993; Babisch, 1993; Babisch, Elwood, & Ising, 1993) give no convincing evidence of an association between long-term exposure to traffic noise and blood pressure or other known risk factors for heart disease. Although very large, the sample size is still too small to be able to detect true weak associations and to take into account the many confounding variables and factors believed to modify the noise-to-disease relationship. Potential modifiers of noise effects which often are not considered include perceived control of noise, noise sensitivity, noise annoyance and total noise load. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the relationship between noise exposure and cardiovascular health and to identify the groups at risk, if any, to these effects.
How Media Has An Affect On Society Essay
A cohort study involving 1,006 subjects indicated long-term health effects in the form of noise-induced sleep disturbance (Ising & Rebentisch, 1993b). Data about noise disturbances during the daytime and at night were collected and compared to self-reported diseases. During the day, noise at home had no association with incidence of angina pectoris and hypertension over a period of 11 years. Participants with reported noise-induced sleep disturbances, however, showed a tendency towards increased reported angina pectoris (relative risk: 1.86) and a significant increase in reported hypertension (relative risk: 2.32).
Negative Effects of Electronic Media on Society and Culture!
Uncontrollable stressors are typically appraised as more threatening and are frequently associated with negative effects on health leading to the hypothesis that adverse adrenergic responses occur only after appraisal of noise as a stressor (Kristensen, 1989). Pulles, Biesiot and Stewart (1990) reported differences in subjective health complaints between noise exposed and nonexposed groups to be dependent upon subjects perceived control over noise, and to be independent of sound pressure level. Atherley, Gibbons and Powell (1970) showed that exposures to noise of large perceived importance (or meaning) are associated with increased complaints, such as tiredness and irritability, galvanic skin responses, and circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils whereas adrenocortical response (urinary 17- ketosteroids) is diminished. Meaningless noise of equivalent intensity (white noise) does not show any of these effects.
Negative Effects of Electronic Media on Society and Culture
After-effects of noise-disturbed sleep such as perceived sleep quality, fatigue, changes in mood and impairment of performance have been studied both in laboratory and field studies. Long-term effects on psychosocial wellbeing and different medical symptoms in individuals living in heavily noise-exposed areas have been assessed as well.
The Positive Impacts of Social Media on Society
The overall evidence for the effects of noise on cardiovascular functioning is suggestive of weak to moderate effects of community noise on blood pressure. In addition, there is a potential association between noise-induced hearing loss and cardiovascular disease suggested by Kent, Tolan and von Gierke (1986). The clinical significance of the elevations of blood pressure is not clear. Equivocal conclusions have been drawn from occupational studies of exposure to high levels of continuous noise as well as from research on community noise (Thompson, 1993; Schwarze & Thompson, 1993). Much of this work is methodologically weak in that studies have been based on small, selective samples and have insufficient control for confounders. The cross-sectional nature of most designs does not take into account the temporal relationship between exposure and health outcome. Laboratory studies generally find elevations in blood pressure but are dubious to interpret because of the use of short-term exposures to higher than ambient noise levels.